PONDERFUL was a key attraction at the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) Science Day in September.

Around 600 people from across Berlin and beyond attended the public event, which PONDERFUL partner IGB has held since 1992. The Science Day focused on informing and educating visitors about IGB’s research activities on lakes, rivers and ponds, as well as addressing freshwater issues of public concern. The event, which attracted people of all ages, featured several interactive elements and gave people the opportunity to interact with IGB researchers.

The PONDERFUL group at IGB created a stand, which included two microscopes. Visitors used the microscopes and ID sheets to identify the main groups of benthic macroinvertebrates, found in ponds at nearby PONDERFUL demo-site Schöneiche. These aquatic invertebrates can be important indicators of water quality. Attendees also played a memory card game to learn about the main Nature Contributions to People provided by ponds. They were also invited to list local names for ponds at Schöneiche.

Dr. Thomas Mehner of IGB said: “Our stand attracted a lot of attention and sparked interesting conversations about the role of ponds. Many visitors observed that almost all the ponds at the demo-site had become dry during the last decade and, as a result, we had discussions about regional hydrology and the roles of stakeholders.

“It was surprising to understand that many people are not aware of the role of ponds – or freshwater in general – as the habitat for development of many insect groups, including dragonflies and beetles. The event was a great opportunity to share PONDERFUL with a wider public, as well as engaging in discussions about the importance of ponds for biodiversity.”

Practitioners and members of the public will soon be able to learn about Nature-based solutions at pondscapes across Europe and South America. The PONDERFUL consortium is producing 16 leaflets focusing on PONDERFUL results and success stories at PONDERFUL DEMO-sites in eight countries.

Eight DEMO-sites were chosen for the PONDERFUL project, encompassing 20 pondscapes where Nature-based Solutions (NbS) have been successfully implemented.

Through PONDERFUL research, we now have strong evidence of good practice for NbS implementations in these DEMO-sites. The consortium is developing a leaflet for each pondscape to share the results and a selection of success stories. These will be made available early 2024 on the PONDERFUL website.

The success stories include for example:

  • Reducing flood risk at Lystrup pondscape in Denmark and Imrahor (Ankara) pondscape Turkey.
  • A pondscape as water reserve for sustaining extensive cattle farming in Uruguay.
  • The coexistence of natural habitats and tourism at La Pletera in Catalonia, Spain.
  • The development of a nature education centre in a city centre in Schöneiche (Berlin), Germany
  • Developing multifunctionality at the pondscape scale in Rhône Genevois, Switzerland.
  • Implementing protection status promoting biodiversity and infrastructure for recreation and nature observation at Tommelen pondscape in Belgium.
  • Reducing the agricultural pressure on the landscape to improve water quality and habitats at Albera temporary ponds in Catalonia, Spain.
  • Creating and managing clean water ponds for biodiversity and for people in a farmed landscape in the UK.

In total, around 40 success stories have been developed for the leaflets. Some of these will also feature in the PONDERFUL technical handbook.

Dr Beat Oertli, Professor at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland said: “Through PONDERFUL we are gaining insights on how pondscapes can provide Nature-based solutions as we adapt to climate change. Our research is showing the multiple benefits of high quality pondscapes for biodiversity and people.”

These leaflets bring together success stories from a diverse range of sites across Europe and South America. We hope they will not only be informative but will also inspire landowners, managers and practitioners to to replicate the good practices and create and manage pondscapes to provide Nature-based solutions.”


I’m an aquatic ecologist working on the ecology of temperate, dryland and tropical aquatic systems. I’m particularly fascinated by the processes underpinning community assembly, biodiversity and food web structure in relation to human induced ecosystem alteration. It is my ultimate objective to enhance our understanding of the structure and the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to translate scientific insights into effective and sustainable ecosystem conservation.

I obtained my masters in Biology at KU Leuven (Belgium), where I subsequently conducted my PhD research focusing on the importance of fish community structure for freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of man-made ponds. This research has contributed to the development of a science-based biodiversity conservation plan for a large Natura 2000 fish pond region in Belgium (De Wijers). I spent several years as post-doc in the research group of Luc De Meester at KU Leuven working on a variety of research projects dealing with aquatic ecology and biodiversity in relation to human induced environmental pressures. More recently, I’ve combined working at KU Leuven with a post-doc position in the research team of Thomas Mehner at the Leibniz Institute für Gewasserökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB) (Berlin, Germany). My current research activities relate to community ecology and conservation biology in ponds, lakes and wetlands in temperate and tropical regions.

I’m involved in multiple work packages of the PONDERFUL project, but most notably I deal with the collection and analysis of empirical data. In collaboration with a team of engaged master and PhD students at IGB and KU Leuven, I contributed to the collection of field data from a large number of ponds in Belgium and Germany. I’m also responsible for combining data from multiple research teams together into one integrated database that we will use for an overarching analysis of patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in relation to land-use intensity along gradients of climate.

PONDERFUL is highly inspiring as the project is driven by an international and interdisciplinary consortium of passionate researchers. Together, we’re highlighting the importance of small standing waterbodies in climate change mitigation and adaption. Importantly, we’re also facilitating the effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity and associated ecosystem services.

PONDERFUL provides a unique opportunity to obtain valuable insights into patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning along environmental gradients at the spatial scale of Europe. We’re now entering the most exciting phase of the project, which involves the analysis of the obtained data and the integration of research findings from different work packages and disciplines. I’m especially looking forward to learning how ponds and the species they support respond to land use, how this translates into effects on ecosystem processes and related ecosystem services, and how local factors interact with regional landscape factors.

I’m convinced that the research findings of PONDERFUL will lead to small standing waterbodies being included in effective conservation programmes and policies to safeguard freshwater biodiversity in the face of climate change.

Last month PONDERFUL participated in the XXX Argentina Ecology Meeting, in Bariloche, Argentina. During the four-days meeting around 800 participants from CELAC countries but also other parts of the world, engaged in promoting and disseminating the advances in the area of ecology and establishing discussions on the “New Frontiers of Ecology: Exploring Global Challenges”.

PONDERFUL researchers presented their work in a poster entitled “The use of small waterbodies as nature-based solutions”. The main objective of the study conducted within the scopes of PONDERFUL project was to evaluate the use of small waterbodies and their networks as nature based solutions (actions: creation, restoration and management), to promote biodiversity and other ecosystem services. The outcomes suggest that small water bodies and their networks are effective nature-based solutions to address current environmental and societal challenges. Despite these positive findings, the work should continue to better understand their effectiveness and broaden their global applicability.

If you want to know more about this work, you can download the poster here.



Here I review some recent research papers that caught my eye and got me thinking, or suggested some practical actions we could take. In addition, the PONDERFUL consortium is now publishing a growing number of papers with results from the project. Keep an eye on the scientific publications page of our website for updates.

Ponds and other small freshwaters

I’m always on the lookout for papers which illustrate the details of how ponds are made by animals. Such observations help to support the idea that ponds are an essentially natural type of habitat, widely recreated by people. In Europe and North America a lot is known about the ponds made by beavers, but other animals also make ponds. In the Florida Everglades ‘alligator ponds’ are a distinctive feature of the landscape and in a paper published earlier this year, Bradley Strickland and colleagues describe the distinctive features of these habitats, and the effect of alligators as ‘ecosystem engineers’. To make their ponds, alligators repeatedly remove vegetation and push sediment into the banks of the ponds with their claws, snout and tail, maintaining areas of open water and well-vegetated margins. This provides habitat for a range of aquatic plants and animals and maintains unique open-water areas in the Everglades that would fill with vegetation without the activities of alligators. Alligator ponds are modest in size: an earlier study of their basic limnology found that the largest were only 70 m2 and just over a metre deep. These natural reptile-created ponds remind us that large animals have been making ponds for many millions of years, and long before the rise of the mammals.

Meredith Holgerson and her colleagues made another interesting contribution to our understanding to the sequestration of carbon in ponds. As everyone in PONDERFUL will be well aware, ponds influence the global carbon cycle by releasing greenhouse gases and storing carbon in their sediments. Yet, there are very few estimates of carbon burial rates in ponds, making it challenging to determine their global importance. Holgerson and her colleagues surveyed 22 artificial ponds that were all constructed in an identical way and lacked watersheds, allowing them to examine how management activities influenced internal accumulation and storage of organic carbon. They found that ponds sequestered large amounts of carbon in their sediments, with rates significantly influenced by macrophytes, fish and nitrate/phosphate levels. Ultimately, the high carbon sequestration rates observed in ponds suggest that the global carbon sink for lentic waters is substantially underestimated. Earlier this year, Meredith also gave one of the PONDERFUL seminars on the role of ponds in carbon sequestration. If you haven’t already seen the talk, you can view it here.

PONDERFUL results are suggesting that ponds can be a sink for N2O. However, the mechanism of N2O-fixation in freshwater is currently unknown, unlike the long-recognised conversion of nitrogen compounds in anoxic environments to nitrogen (N2) gas. The recent paper Direct biological fixation provides a freshwater sink for N2O, by Yueyue Si and colleagues, suggests a possible mechanism for the N2O sink. They found in a mesocosm study, conducted in the UK, that both N2O and N2 can be fixed by freshwater communities. N2O fixation appeared less sensitive to temperature than N2 fixation, driving a strong sink for N2O in colder months. They also found that, rather than N2O being first reduced to N2 through denitrification, N2O fixation was direct and could explain the widely reported N2O sinks in natural waters.

Turning to larger scale phenomena, everyone in the PONDERFUL team will probably be aware of the long-running debate on how large grazing mammals affected European vegetation: was the land largely cloaked in forests where the climate was suitable or were there open patches maintained by large herbivores? The answer has big implications for freshwaters, and not least for ponds. In a new paper on the history of tree cover, which also has some very good artist reconstruction of how the landscapes looked in the post-glacial period, Elena Pearse and colleagues provide further evidence to support the idea that European forests were open and patchy, not a thick blanket over the land. For ponds this is important because of the long-running practical debates about whether trees are a good or bad thing around ponds. It suggests two important observations: first there were open spaces, suggesting that it would be normal to have open and shaded ponds, and all stages in between. And second it indicates that large animals would have been abundant enough to change the vegetation, further supporting the idea that ponds, and other freshwaters, have long been influenced by large animals.

Other interesting papers

Many people reading this newsletter will already be aware of the on-going debate on whether freshwater invertebrate communities are becoming richer or declining in diversity. Two recent additions to this debate are of interest: covering the whole of Europe, a large-scale analysis by a multi-author team showed that biodiversity recovery in European rivers has stagnated since 2010. A different take is provided by a paper from the UK by Yueming Qu and colleagues shows significant improvements in freshwater invertebrate biodiversity in all types of English rivers over the past 30 years. Yet another view is provided from a large analysis of United States river monitoring in an analysis spanning 27 years and 6131 stream sites across forested, grassland, urban, and agricultural land uses throughout the United States. Samantha Rumschlag and colleagues found that macroinvertebrate density declined by 11% and richness increased by 12.2%, and insect density and richness declined by 23.3 and 6.8%, respectively, over 27 years. Differences in richness and composition between urban and agricultural versus forested and grassland streams increased over time. Urban and agricultural streams lost the few disturbance-sensitive taxa they once had and gained disturbance-tolerant taxa. The authors suggest that current efforts to protect and restore streams are not sufficient to mitigate anthropogenic effects.

All of these papers make use of the excellent large, long-term, datasets available from river monitoring programmes over the last 30 years. But it’s always worth remembering that these are only part of the story: in the small number of catchments where comparative data from different waterbody types are available, including ponds, invertebrate diversity at landscape scale is greater in ponds than in rivers. PONDERFUL data itself is providing a different perspective on this same issue: the latest update of Williams et al. (2020), which showed whole landscape decline of freshwater biodiversity over the period 2010-2018 in central England, the first such study, shows that this trend continued until to 2023. The study area is now the PONDERFUL Water Friendly Farming demonstration site.

Practical actions

For the practically-minded, a recently published guide to the restoration, creation and management of ponds should be useful. Published by two of the PONDERFUL partners, UCL and Freshwater Habitats Trust and written by Carl Sayer, Jeremy Biggs, Helen Greaves and Penny Williams, the guide is intended for practical conservation work and, although focused on the UK, should be helpful in other areas.

Stakeholders are helping to shape the outputs of PONDERFUL at workshops being held across Europe and South America this autumn and winter.

These interactive events are the third in a series of PONDERFUL stakeholder workshops. They are an important part of PONDERFUL, bringing together freshwater policy and conservation expertise and ensuring the voices of people with a strong connection to our DEMO-sites are heard.

The third stakeholder workshops focus on co-creating some of the project’s key outputs, including the technical handbook, CLIMA-pond designs and decision support tool. They are also a key opportunity for partners to provide stakeholders with feedback on PONDERFUL’s findings relating to biodiversity, land-use changes, policy and financing of the DEMO-sites.


The workshops include a range of stakeholders with an interest in ponds and pondscapes, including policymakers, landowners, practitioners, NGOs and researchers.

So far, workshops have been held in Switzerland, Spain and the UK, with events planned for Uruguay, Germany, Denmark, Belgium and Turkey.

Thank you to everyone attending these workshops for helping to shape the results of PONDERFUL and create a better future for ponds and pondscapes.

PONDERFUL aims to understand how pond ecosystems can contribute for resilient landscapes. This was the main theme of ASLO Aquatic Sciences Meeting, held in Palma, Spain, last June. ASLO – Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, organised a six-days event to discuss the resilience and recovery in aquatic systems.

Researchers from PONDERFUL got together to share their recent work on landscape degradation, where they explore the potential trends in diversity in response to freshwater degradation across Europe. The PONDERFUL researchers from Uruguay gathered several satellite and biogeographical information to assess how the degradation of the landscape caused by the loss of habitat but also the loss in connectivity would impact diversity loss rates. Large differences were observed between European biogeographic regions with some of them rapidly collapsing and others being more resistant to waterscape degradation. The obtained results identify which of these regions are more sensitive to waterscape degradation which is a valuable information to management of freshwater biodiversity at broad scales, improving adaptation and resilience to human-derived changes.

If you wish to know more about PONDERFUL participation in ASLO, you can download the posters that our team presented during the event below.



Ponds were the subject of several sessions at the Symposium for European Freshwater Sciences (SEFS13), held in the UK in June. The conference, which is one of the biggest events in the freshwater calendar, included a programme of pond-related sessions hosted by PONDERFUL partner the European Pond Conservation Network (EPCN).

Several members of the PONDERFUL consortium attended the symposium, presenting their work and sharing results with other freshwater scientists from around the world. The event included special sessions on Soundscape studies in ponds, lakes and rivers and Ponds as integral part of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes, involving PONDERFUL partner UCL.

In addition, representatives from PONDERFUL partners, including The University of Vic – Central University of Catalonia, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland and Freshwater Habitats Trust, shared results from the project.

Organised by the Freshwater Biological Association, SEFS13 took place from 18th to 23rd June in Newcastle upon Tyne in the north of England.

The PONDERFUL project was represented at the NatureNetwork Taskforces Cluster meeting, held in Brussels on 7th June. Through interviews, presentations, panel debates, and interactive sessions, this meeting showcased results, tools and products from EU-funded projects, focused on Nature-based Solutions (NBS).

Dr Aurélie Boissezon of PONDERFUL partner University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland joined a panel discussion on how projects like PONDERFUL are helping us develop NBS.

Dr Mireia Bartrons Vilamala of project partner The University of Vic – Central University of Catalonia also attended the meeting, which provided opportunities to share ideas and discuss collaboration with other NBS-focused projects.

The Nature-based Solutions Taskforces include EU Horizon 2020 projects that focus on NBS. This provides opportunities for projects to ‘cluster’ through collaboration and sharing of ideas.

Dr Mireia Bartrons Vilamala said: “The NatureNetwork Taskforces Cluster meeting had a packed schedule and we learned so much about the work happening across Europe to address climate change and other issues facing society. It was so inspiring to find out more about other projects and share ideas for collaboration with PONDERFUL. With more results coming out of PONDERFUL over the coming months, it is vital that we share our findings and outputs with other members of the Nature-based Solutions Taskforces.”


Here I review some recent research and policy events that caught my eye and got me thinking, or suggested some practical actions we could take. In addition, the PONDERFUL consortium is now publishing a growing number of papers with results from the project. Keep an eye on the scientific publications page of our website for updates.

Ponds and other small habitats

There are a variety of activities that lead to increases in pond numbers. In the UK, Jeannie Beadle, Joseph Holden and Lee Brown report on one of these which is probably creating a lot of new ponds: re-wetting peatland. The authors suggest that “hundreds of thousands to millions of new peatland ponds” are being created in the UK as a side effect of this process.

For a sense of scale, in the UK it’s estimated that there about 0.5 million ponds in the countryside, with perhaps 2 million in gardens, so peatland restoration could be having a very big impact on pond numbers in the UK. This year, the state conservation regulator in England, Natural England, is starting a new national count of ponds, based on a national stratified random 1 km square survey. So, we should get a better idea of the effect of peatland restoration on total pond numbers fairly soon.

The Beadle et al. paper is mainly concerned with the biodiversity value of new peatland ponds and also reports interesting observations on this subject. They conclude that new ponds quite quickly (over 15 years) came to resemble naturally created peatland ponds. This ability of new ponds to take on the qualities of much older ponds, and of the quality of species rich regional freshwater biotas generally, is an important part of the argument about the value of ponds for protecting biodiversity. This new evidence from rewetted peatlands is, therefore, a useful addition to our understanding of the role of ponds in helping to protect freshwater biodiversity.

Yet again, recent new work by Lenore Fahrig and her colleagues (in this case, Federico Riva) has important implications for pond lovers, provide interesting ideas from terrestrial ecology that are relevant to pond conservation. In the paper Obstruction of biodiversity conservation by minimum patch size criteria they reflect on the conservation principle that a single large (SL) patch of habitat has higher biodiversity than several small (SS) patches of the same total area (SL>SS). Research has shown that this idea often turns out to be incorrect so that biodiversity conservation requires much more emphasis on the protection of large numbers of small patches (SS>SL). This is an almost exact statement of the paradox we see with freshwater, with more species collectively in the smaller area of habitat provided by ponds compared to other freshwaters. Riva and Fahrig used a global database reporting the abundances of species across hundreds of terrestrial patches to assess the SL>SS principle in systems where small patches are much smaller than the typical minimum patch size criteria applied for biodiversity conservation (i.e., ∼85% of patches were less than 100 ha in area). Consistent with previous syntheses, they found that species richness accumulated more rapidly when adding several small patches (45.2% SS>SL vs. 19.9% SL>SS) to reach the same cumulative area, even for the very small patches in their data set. They concluded that, when a given total area of habitat is to be protected, overall biodiversity conservation will be most effective if that habitat is composed of as many small patches as possible, plus a few large ones. This advice, which is about terrestrial habitats, could have been designed specifically for ponds, and perhaps for freshwater more generally.

We often say that ponds can be found on all continents and probably most of us don’t know much about how this happens in the Antarctic. The paper The need for increased protection of Antarctica’s inland waters is a useful introduction to the occurrence and ecology of ponds in Antarctica where they are a prominent part of the freshwater environment.

Recent studies on the condition of rivers in various parts of the world (UK: taxon richness, UK: taxon abundance, Switzerland, Ireland etc) have reported both ups and downs in river invertebrates, the most widely monitored group of freshwater organisms. To almost everyone reading this review it will be no surprise that much less is known about what’s happening to ponds or to freshwater biodiversity at whole landscape scale – to which ponds make such a big contribution. Although PONDERFUL demo sites are giving us some clues, and national studies, at least in the UK, provide some evidence of on-going decline generally, we have little idea of the condition of ponds across Europe. If only we had as much information to play with as we do for rivers! Surveys being undertaken in the UK by Natural England for the England Ecosystem Survey will hopefully help update understanding in one European state at least.

Finally, you may already have seen news of underwater sounds in ponds which was covered by the BBC. This is a quickly growing and interesting area of research which seems to have some promise for assessing pond condition. Jack Greenhalgh, Martin Genner and Gareth Jones collected 840 hr of underwater sound recordings from five large ponds – which varied in size from 0.2 ha to 1.9 ha – in the southwest of the UK and compared this with macroinvertebrate survey data. They found sounds peaked between 02:00 and 04:00 in the morning and around the solar noon. Surveys were undertaken in late spring and early summer, so the early morning peak was not long before dawn. Aquatic bugs, particularly corixids, and photsynthesising water plants seemed to dominate the soundscape, and Greenhalgh and his colleagues concluded that to get a good indication of the soundscape it was necessary to deploy microphones throughout the 24 hr light-dark cycle.

Other interesting papers

Many people reading this newsletter will probably already be aware of a recent important paper by PONDERFUL colleagues Tom Davidson and Carl Sayer, and their co-authors, on the subject of alternative stable state in shallow lakes, and patterns of chlorophyll a concentrations and nutrients. Their work adds further doubt to one of freshwater’s most enduring and influential theories and, at risk of summarising this interesting paper too pithily, it looks like the alternative stable states theory may now have had its day as simpler explanations can account for the patterns seen in the natural world. Although we’ll probably never know whether it also applies to ponds (I suspect not), the alternative stable states concept has had a big impact on the way lakes are managed. What is perhaps as interesting is what the theories demise might mean for observations on critical tipping points, which have had a considerable influence on the debate about safe planetary boundaries. However, even if alternative stable states hypothesis is en route to rejection, one thing hasn’t changed. As Tom and his colleagues note: the “pressing need to reduce nutrient inputs in shallow lakes to help maintain the resilience of their ecological processes and biodiversity in the face of rapid global change” still remains.

Practical actions

As everyone in PONDERFUL will know, the Ramsar Convention recently adopted a resolution on enhancing the conservation and management of small wetlands. An international group of freshwater scientists, co-ordinated by the PONDERFUL team, wrote to congratulate the Ramsar secretariat on the adoption of the small wetland resolution. This is an international signal of the importance of small freshwater habitats, including ponds. We are now in the process of drafting suggestions for PONDERFUL members and others to specifically promote the measures recommended by Ramsar in the small wetland resolution. We hope to meet with Ramsar later in the project as we finalise our policy advice. As important was the progress of the EU Nature Restoration Law which has several significant items for small waters, including ponds. The amendment to Article 7 requiring member states to consider small waters, as well as removing barriers in rivers, was unfortunately, rejected in a vote in the EU Parliament. It’s possible that there will be opportunities to recover this article but the chances don’t look good. Despite this, there are still several opportunities in the Nature Restoration Law to help further the protection, creation and management of ponds and other small waters. In brief these are:

  • Article 11. Perhaps the most important part of the Nature Restoration Law will be the National Restoration Plans. Inclusion of ponds in these plans is the key outcome that pond lovers should now aim for. Given the strength of scientific evidence, there seems every chance that plans on small waters and small wetlands could be included if they are lobbied for at national level.
  • Article 4: restoration targets and obligations offer potential to help ponds which support Annex I, II, IV and V habitat types and species. These are:
  1. Member States shall aim to put in place the restoration measures in Natura 2000 sites that are necessary to move towards reaching favourable conservation status of habitat types listed in Annex I which are not in good condition. Such measures shall be put in place on Natura 2000 network area of habitat types listed in Annex I that are not in good condition, as quantified in the national restoration plan referred to in Article 12. [Am. 21]
  2. Member States shall put in place the restoration measures that are necessary to re-establish the habitat types listed in Annex I in areas not covered by those habitat types with the aim to reach their favourable reference area. Such measures shall be in place in areas necessary to ensure fulfilment of the goals laid down in paragraph 1 of this Article. [Am. 99]
  3. Member States shall put in place the restoration measures for the terrestrial, coastal and freshwater habitats of the species listed in Annexes II, IV and V to Directive 92/43/EEC and of the terrestrial, coastal and freshwater habitats of wild birds covered by Directive 2009/147/EC that are, in addition to the restoration measures in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, necessary to improve the quality and quantity of those habitats, including by re-establishing them, and to enhance connectivity, until sufficient quality and quantity of those habitats is achieved.
  • Article 6. There are also opportunities for pond conservation work in relation to Article 6 covering urban areas.
  • Article 7, although rejecting the small water regulation, does require that “Member States shall ensure that natural connectivity of rivers and natural functions of the related floodplains restored in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 are maintained.” As floodplains are naturally a hotspot for ponds, this offers good support for measures to restore ponds on the many thousands of square kilometres of floodplain land alongside the streams and rivers of the continent. PONDERFUL demo site Pinkhill Meadow is a classic example of the restoration of floodplains by pond creation.
  • Article 8. There are opportunities to make use of ponds for pollinator restoration, perhaps starting with research on the role of ponds for pollinators. This is a relatively little-known area but has been studied by PONDERFUL partners.
  • Small waters and wetlands, including ponds, are specifically identified in the NRL as: “High-diversity landscape features on agricultural land, including buffer strips, rotational or non-rotational fallow land, hedgerows, individual or groups of trees, tree rows, field margins, patches, ditches, streams, small wetlands, terraces, cairns, stonewalls, small ponds and cultural features, provide space for wild plants and animals…..”.

We will write more about this later in the year.

By Professor Jeremy Biggs, CEO, Freshwater Habitats Trust